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Hawiye

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The Hawiye (Somali: Hawiiye, Arabic: بنو هوية‎) is a Somali clan. Members of the clan primarily live in central and southern Somalia, in the Ogaden and theNorth Eastern Province (currently administered by Ethiopia and Kenya, respectively), and in smaller numbers in other countries. Like many Somalis, Hawiye members trace their ancestry to Irir Samaale. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and Human Rights Watch indicate that Hawiye is the largest Somali clan.[1][2] Other sources, including the Canadian Report of the Somalia Commission of Inquiry, indicate that the Darod is the largest Somali clan.[3][4] Hawiye is the dominant clan in Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia.[5]

ContentsEdit

[hide]*1 History

HistoryEdit

The first reference to the Hawiye dates back to the 13th century writings of the Arab geographer, Ibn Sa'id, who describes Merca as the "capital of Hawiye country". The 12th century cartographerMuhammad al-Idrisi may have referred to the Hawiye as well, as he called Merca the region of the "Hadiye", which Herbert S. Lewis believes is a scribal error for "Hawiye", as do Guilliani, Schleicher and Cerulli.[6]

Settlement and commerceEdit

Due to ancient pastoralist migrations and population movements across the Somali peninsula in search of water wells and grazing land over a period of thousand years, Hawiye clans today can be found inhabiting an area stretching from the fertile lands of southern Somalia between Barawa and Kismayo, to the regions surrounding Merka, Mogadishu and Warsheikh in the hinterland, west to the modern city of Beledweyne in the Hiiraan region, and north to the ancient port town of Hobyo in the arid central Mudug region.[7]

Sub-clans of the Hawiye include the Degodia, about 40 percent of whom live in Ethiopia. When Arthur Donaldson Smith traveled through what is now Bare woreda in 1895, he found that the Degodia were neighbors of the Afgab clan, their territory stretching east to the Weyib and Dawa Rivers.[8]

The economy of the Hawiye in the interior includes the predominant nomadic pastoralism, and to some extent, cultivation within agricultural settlements in the riverine area, as well as mercantile commerce along the urban coast. At various points throughout history, trade of modern and ancient commodities by the Hawiye through maritime routes included cattle skin, slaves, ivory andambergris.[9][10]

Clan treeEdit

There is no clear agreement on the clan and sub-clan structures and many lineages are omitted. The following listing is taken from the World Bank's Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics from 2005 and the United Kingdom's Home Office publication, Somalia Assessment 2001.[11][12]

  • Hawiye
    • Baadicade
    • Gaaljal
    • Hawadle
    • Abgaal (Abgal)
      • Harti
      • Wabudhan
        • Da'oud
        • Rer Mattan
        • Mohamed Muse
      • Wa'esli
    • Murosade
    • Sheekhaal (Sheikal)(sheekhaal people says that they are not hawiye)
    • Habar Gidir (Haber Gedir)
      • Sa'ad
      • Suleiman
      • Ayr
      • Sarur
    • Waadan


In the south central part of Somalia the World Bank shows the following clan tree:[13]

  • Hawiye
    • Karanle
      • Murusade
    • Gorgate
      • Abgal
      • Habargidir
      • Sheikhal
      • Duduble
      • Ujeien
    • Gugun-Dhabe
    • Rarane
    • Haskul
    • Jambeele
      • Hawadle
      • Galje'el
      • Ajuran
      • Dagodi


In Puntland the World Bank shows the following:[14]

  • Hawiye
    • Habar Gidir
    • Abgall
    • Biyamaal
    • Hawaadle
    • Murursade
    • Ujuuran

Notable Hawiye figuresEdit

Heads of StateEdit

PoliticiansEdit

Military personnelEdit

Leading intellectualsEdit

Traditional elders and religious leadersEdit

Music and literatureEdit

Political factions and organizationsEdit

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