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The Hawiye (Somali: Hawiiye, Arabic: بنو هوية) is a Somali clan. Members of the clan primarily live in central and southern Somalia, in the Ogaden and theNorth Eastern Province (currently administered by Ethiopia and Kenya, respectively), and in smaller numbers in other countries. Like many Somalis, Hawiye members trace their ancestry to Irir Samaale. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and Human Rights Watch indicate that Hawiye is the largest Somali clan. Other sources, including the Canadian Report of the Somalia Commission of Inquiry, indicate that the Darod is the largest Somali clan. Hawiye is the dominant clan in Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia.
The first reference to the Hawiye dates back to the 13th century writings of the Arab geographer, Ibn Sa'id, who describes Merca as the "capital of Hawiye country". The 12th century cartographerMuhammad al-Idrisi may have referred to the Hawiye as well, as he called Merca the region of the "Hadiye", which Herbert S. Lewis believes is a scribal error for "Hawiye", as do Guilliani, Schleicher and Cerulli.
Settlement and commerceEdit
Due to ancient pastoralist migrations and population movements across the Somali peninsula in search of water wells and grazing land over a period of thousand years, Hawiye clans today can be found inhabiting an area stretching from the fertile lands of southern Somalia between Barawa and Kismayo, to the regions surrounding Merka, Mogadishu and Warsheikh in the hinterland, west to the modern city of Beledweyne in the Hiiraan region, and north to the ancient port town of Hobyo in the arid central Mudug region.
Sub-clans of the Hawiye include the Degodia, about 40 percent of whom live in Ethiopia. When Arthur Donaldson Smith traveled through what is now Bare woreda in 1895, he found that the Degodia were neighbors of the Afgab clan, their territory stretching east to the Weyib and Dawa Rivers.
The economy of the Hawiye in the interior includes the predominant nomadic pastoralism, and to some extent, cultivation within agricultural settlements in the riverine area, as well as mercantile commerce along the urban coast. At various points throughout history, trade of modern and ancient commodities by the Hawiye through maritime routes included cattle skin, slaves, ivory andambergris.
There is no clear agreement on the clan and sub-clan structures and many lineages are omitted. The following listing is taken from the World Bank's Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics from 2005 and the United Kingdom's Home Office publication, Somalia Assessment 2001.
In the south central part of Somalia the World Bank shows the following clan tree:
- Habar Gidir
Notable Hawiye figuresEdit
|This biographical article needs additional citations for verification. Please help by adding reliable sources. Contentious material about living persons that is unsourced or poorly sourced must be removed immediately, especially if potentially libelous or harmful. (September 2010)|
Heads of StateEdit
- Abdiqasim Salad Hassan, President of Somalia, 2000–2004
- Abdullahi Issa, Prime minister of Somalia, 1954–1960
- Aden Abdullah Osman Daar, President of Somalia, 1960–67
- Ali Mahdi Muhammad President of Somalia, 1991–1995
- Ali Mohammed Ghedi, Prime minister of Somalia, 2004–2007
- Mohamed Farrah Aidid, President of Somalia 1995-1996
- Nur Hassan Hussein, Prime minister of Somalia, 2007–2009
- Sharif Ahmed, President of Somalia, 2009-current
- Abdu Qadir Aadan Cabdi Jiraabey, President of Hiiraan and Midland, June 2010
- Abdirahman Janaqow, Somali leader, deputy chairman of the Islamic Courts Union of Somalia (ICU), Minister of Justice
- Abdullahi Ahmed Addou, Ambassador to the United States, 1970–80
- Abukar Umar Adani, Islamist, businessman who used to control the El-ma`an beach area which served as Mogadishu's port since the closure in 1995 of the city's main port
- Ali Mohamed Osoble, Minister of Commerce & Construction, 1967–69; co-founder of the United Somali Congress
- Ali Shido Abdi, vice-chairman of the SYL party, 1956–60
- Bashir Raghe Shiiraar, secular warlord; member of the US-backed Alliance for Peace and the Fight Against International Terrorism
- Haji Farah Ali Omar, Minister of Finance, 1956–60
- Hussein Hagi Bood, Minister of National planning, 1977–81
- Ismail Jim'ale Osoble, lawyer and Minister of Information in the government of Aden Abdulle Osman
- Mohamed Afrah Qanyare, politician who was based to the south of Mogadishu and member of TFG parliament
- Mohamed Sheikh Osman, Minister of Finance, 1980–84
- Muse Nur Amiin, Minister of Internal Affairs and National Security 2008–present [not in citation given]
- Omar Hashi Aden, Minister of National Security, 2009
- Ahmed Maxamed Xasan, Lieutenant colonel who defused Mig-17 jet fighter bombs
- Daud Abdulle Hirsi, Commander-in-chief of the Somali national army, 1960–65
- Hassan Dahir Aweys, leader of Islamist revolution in Somalia, 2006–09
- Hussein Kulmiye Afrah, vice-president of Somalia under the Siad Barre regime
- Mohamed Farrah Aidid, Chairman of the United Somali Congress, 1991–1994
- Mohammed Hussein Ali, Commissioner of the Kenyan police; 2004–08
- Muuse Suudi Yalahow, politician who served as Trade Minister in the Transitional Federal Government
- Salaad Gabeyre Kediye, Father of the 1969 revolution
- Abdi Mohamed Ulusso, 2003 presidential candidate
- Abdulkadir Yahye Ali, peace activist, co-director and founder of the Center for Research and Dialogue 
- Abukar Umar Adani, businessman who operates the Elman port services
- Ali Jimale, educator at the City University of New York
- Ali Sheikh Ahmed, dual president of Mogadishu University and Al-Islaah
- Hilowle Imam Omar, co-chairman of the reconciliation program 1995-2000
- Hussein Ali Shido, founding member of the United Somali Congress
- Hussein Sheikh Ahmed Kaddare, author of the Kaddariya script, 1952
- Ibrahim Hassan Addou, Former Professor of Washington University. Foreign Minister of the Union of Islamic courts in 2006
Traditional elders and religious leadersEdit
- Cabdulle Gorod, elder based in Hobyo
- Olol Diinle, last king of the Ajuran empire
- Sheekh Xasan Barsame, Ahmaddi anti-colonialist scholar
- Sheikh Ali Dhere, founder of the first Islamic Court in Mogadishu
Music and literatureEdit
- Abdi Bashiir Indhobuur, poet and composer, writer of several patriotic songs
- Abdulle Geedannaar, poet
- Hasan Adan Samatar, musician
- Hussein Anteeno , political Journalist [unreliable source?][self-published source?]
- K'naan, Somali-Canadian poet, rapper and musician
- Magool (Halima Khalif Omar), musician
- Sheekh Ahmed Gabyow, 19th-century poet
Political factions and organizationsEdit
- Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism, (ARPCT) a Somali alliance created by various warlords and businesspeople
- Democratic Union Party (DUP), has supporters in the area of Negele Boran in the Ogaden's Borena Zone in Ethiopia, with the majority of the Hawiye Degodia clan heading the party
- Hizbul Shabaab, the Youth Movement wing of the ICU before ceding the organisation to Aden Hashi Farah "Eyrow"
- Islamic Courts Union (ICU), a rival administration to the Transitional Federal Government.
- Juba Valley Alliance (JVA), primary opponent of the Somali Patriotic Movement
- Somali National Alliance (SNA) formed by Mohamed Farrah Aidid
- Somali Salvation Army (SSA), the Ali Mahdi Muhammad branch of the United Somali Congress
- United Somali Congress (USC) Formed in 1989, it played a key role in the ouster of the government of Siad Barre