The demographics of Somalia describes the condition and overview of Somalia's inhabitants. Demographic topics include basic education, health and population statistics, as well as identified racial and religious affiliations.


[hide]*1 Ethnic groups

[edit]Ethnic groupsEdit


[1][2]A Somali schoolgirl.Somalis constitute the largest ethnic group in Somalia, at approximately 85% of the nation's inhabitants.[1] They are organized into clan groupings, which are important social units; clan membership plays a central part in Somali culture and politics. Clans are patrilineal and are typically divided into sub-clans, sometimes with many sub-divisions.

Somali society is traditionally ethnically endogamous. So to extend ties of alliance, marriage is often to another ethnic Somali from a different clan. Thus, for example, a recent study observed that in 89 marriages contracted by men of the Dhulbahante clan, 55 (62%) were with women of Dhulbahante sub-clans other than those of their husbands; 30 (33.7%) were with women of surrounding clans of other clan families (Isaaq, 28;Hawiye, 3); and 3 (4.3%) were with women of other clans of the Darod clan family (Majerteen 2, Ogaden 1).[2]

[edit]Clan structureEdit

Certain clans are traditionally classed as "noble clans", referring to the belief that they share a common Somali ancestry, whereas some minority clans are believed to have mixed parentage. The noble clans are believed to be descended from Samaale (or Samale), and are sometimes referred to collectively by this name. The four noble clans are Darod, Dir, Hawiye, and Isaaq. Of these, the Darod, Dir, and Hawiye trace their descent from Samaale through Irir Samaale. "Sab" is the term used to refer to minority clans in contrast to Samaale.[3] [3][4]The Somali clan family tree of descent.The Digil and Mirifle (Rahanweyn) are agro-pastoral clans in the area between the Jubba andShebelle rivers. They occupy a kind of second tier in the Somali social system. Many do not follow anomadic lifestyle, live further south and speak a group of Somali dialects (Af-Maay), which have recently been classified as a separate language, and so they have been isolated to some extent from the mainstream of Somali society.[3]

A third tier, the occupational clans, have sometimes been treated as outcasts because traditionally they could only marry among themselves and other Somalis considered them to be ritually unclean. They lived in their own settlements among the nomadic populations in the north and performed specialised occupations such as metalworking,tanning and hunting.[3] Minority Somali clans include the Midgan, Tumal, Yibir, Jaji and Yahar.

[edit]Clans and sub-clansEdit

There is no clear agreement on the clan and sub-clan structures. The divisions and subdivisions as given here are partial and simplified. Many lineages are omitted. Note that some sources state that the Rahanweyn group is made up of the Digil and Mirifle clans, whereas others list the Digil as a separate group from the Rahanweyn.[4]

[edit]Other ethnic groupsEdit

Non-Somali ethnic minority groups make up about 15% of the nation's population,[1] and include Benadiri, Bantus, Bajuni, Bravanese, Ethiopians, Indians, Persians, Italians, and Britons. Most Italians and Britons left after independence.

[edit]Demographic statisticsEdit

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[7]


10,112,453 (82nd in world)[8]

[edit]Age structureEdit

0–14 years: 45% (male 2,282,325/female 2,271,707)
15–64 years: 52.5% (male 2,659,151/female 2,650,330)
65 years and over: 2.5% (male 102,941/female 145,999) (2010 est.)

[edit]Population growth rateEdit

2.809% (2010 est.) (16th in world)

[edit]Birth rateEdit

43.33 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) (7th in world)

[edit]Death rateEdit

15.24 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) (13th in world)

[edit]Net migration rateEdit

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) (78th in world)

[edit]Sex ratioEdit

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15–64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female total population: 1 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

[edit]Infant mortality rateEdit

total: 107.42 deaths/1,000 live births (5th in world) male: 116.47 deaths/1,000 live births female: 98.11 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

[edit]Life expectancy at birthEdit

total population: 50 years (213th in world) male: 48.12 years female: 51.94 years (2010 est.)

[edit]Total fertility rateEdit

6.44 children born/woman (2010 est.) (4th in world)


[edit]HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateEdit

0.5% (2007 est.) (76th in world)

[edit]HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSEdit

24,000 (2007 est.) (75th in world)

[edit]HIV/AIDS - deathsEdit

1,600 (2007 est.) (66th in world)

[edit]Major infectious diseasesEdit

degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Rift Valley fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2009)


noun: Somali(s) adjective: Somali

[edit]Ethnic groupsEdit

Somali 85%; Arabs, Bantu and other non-Somali 15%


Sunni Islam


Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English


definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 37.8% male: 49.7% female: 25.8% (2001 est.)

[edit]Education expendituresEdit